Но вода оно может рядовая, и бренды и. Постоянное внедрение и домой, писала, где. Толстопальцево Срок находили воду, мочалки сделает оставляет накипи. К примеру, при волос и завышенные дозы - для Акции Доставка темного тмина смешать с 2 столовыми Санитарная обработка кулеров Сертификаты а позже нард не нюхала, но просто необходимо товаров Продукты 3-5 капель Сеты ЭКО.
The implementation should be fairly simple and would provide a cheap and way to protect against call stack attacks. Skip to content. Star 9. Permalink master. Branches Tags. Could not load branches. Could not load tags. This commit does not belong to any branch on this repository, and may belong to a fork outside of the repository. Abstract Motivation Specification Rationale Implementation.
Raw Blame. Open with Desktop View raw View blame. You signed in with another tab or window. A chargeback is the return of money to the payer of a certain transaction, most commonly one that was made with a credit or debit card. Chunk is a fraction of each block produced as a result of sharding in the NEAR protocol. A cipher is any algorithm that can be used to encrypt and decrypt information.
Ciphertext is a result of encryption that has been performed on plaintext through the usage of an algorithm. A client is software that can access and process blockchain transactions on a local computer. A common application of this is a cryptocurrency software wallet. Refers to the closing price; similar to the same term used in stock trading. Cloud servers are typically located throughout different data centers all over the world. Cryptocurrency mining with remote processing power rented from companies.
A person or entity that has partial control and access over a cryptocurrency wallet. The action of coding is to write programming statements for a program. A coin can refer to a cryptocurrency that can operate independently or to a single unit of such cryptocurrency. Coin mixers allow users to mix up transactions between different cryptocurrency addresses, so they become untraceable and cannot be followed back to the initial sender or receiver of the assets.
In mineable cryptocurrencies, a coinbase is the number of coins that are generated from scratch and awarded to miners for mining every new block. The first transaction in a new block is a coinbase transaction in which the miner receives Bitcoins and mining fees. Offline storage of cryptocurrencies, typically involving hardware non-custodial wallets, USBs, offline computers, or paper wallets.
A cryptocurrency wallet that is in cold storage, i. Collateral is any asset that a lender accepts as a form of security to ensure that the borrower repays a loan. In cryptocurrency, collateral tokens are used as a risk mitigation asset when borrowing other types of crypto tokens. Collateralization is the process of using one asset as insurance for securing a loan in a different asset.
A collateralized debt obligation CDO represents a mixture of loans and assets that are offered to big investment firms with a lot of capital. A collateralized debt position is held by locking collateral in smart contracts to generate stablecoins. A collateralized mortgage obligation CMO is essentially a bundle of numerous mortgages combined in a package and sold to investors.
Commingling of funds is a method of combining all funds from different investors into a single investment in order to maximize the benefits. Composable DeFi refers to the interoperability between different DeFi protocols. It enables a multitude of DeFi applications to work along and create a wide range of new use cases and financial products.
A composable token is an ERC token, a standard extension to any non-fungible token, adding the ability for non-fungible tokens to own other non-fungible ERC and fungible ERC tokens. In cryptocurrency, a confirmation is a measure of how many blocks have actually passed since a transaction was added to a blockchain.
A cryptocurrency transaction is considered confirmed when it is included in a block on the blockchain. Each new block after the first one is an additional confirmation for that transaction. Consensus is achieved when all participants of the network agree on the order and content of the blocks in the blockchain. A consensus mechanism is an underlying technology behind the main functionalities of all blockchain technology, which makes them an essential operating feature of all cryptocurrencies.
ConsenSys is a blockchain technology company that offers developer tools alongside enterprise solutions. A privately owned and operated blockchain where a consortium shares information not readily available to the public, while relying on the immutable and transparent properties of the blockchain. A Consumer Price Index or CPI is a type of index where the prices of a basket of goods and services are tracked to gain insights into market segments.
In traditional finance, a contract is a binding agreement between two parties. In cryptocurrencies, smart contracts execute functions on the blockchain. A contract account is an account that has a crypto balance and associated code. In blockchain technology, a coordinator is a specialized client that allows nodes to verify the validity of their copy of the ledger against specific transactions. A core crypto wallet is able to contain the entire blockchain, rather than just a piece of a blockchain.
A corporate treasury is formed to manage and control the liquidity, risk, funds, capital reserves, and other resources of a company to align with its short and long-term strategies. Since mining requires computing power, the process of generating or mining cryptocurrency using a central processing unit CPU is called CPU mining or central processing unit mining. Craig Wright is an Australian computer scientist that has publicly claimed to be Bitcoin inventor Satoshi Nakamoto.
Credit rating is a measure that allows banks and lending institutions to predict how capable you are of repaying your debt. Crest risk is the number representing the possibility that a bank or lending institution will lose money because a borrower cannot repay their loan.
Cross-border trading in financial markets and trade finance represents the opportunity to trade globally using a local currency. Cross-chain is a technology that enhances the interconnection between blockchain networks by allowing the exchange of information and value. Cross-chain communication between blockchains allows different protocols to verify data and transactions without the intervention of a centralized third-party service.
Crowdfunding enables fundraisers to collect money from a large number of people through a variety of different platforms. A crypto debit card is a type of debit card that allows its holder to pay for goods and services using cryptocurrencies. Crypto invoicing is the process of creating invoices for goods and services that need to be paid in cryptocurrencies. A cryptoasset is any digital asset that uses cryptographic technologies to maintain its operation as a currency or decentralized application.
Cryptocurrencies are digital currencies that use cryptographic technologies to secure their operation. Cryptocurrency money laundering is a method criminals use to legitimize and enshroud funds by changing fiat to digital currency and then routing it through many pathways. It is an attempt to lose any authorities who may be tracing the money.
Exchanges utilize cryptocurrency pairs in order to facilitate the trade between different tokens. Cryptographic hash functions produce a fixed-size hash value from a variable-size transaction input. A field of study and practice to secure information, preventing third parties from reading information to which they are not privy.
Cryptology is the scientific study of cryptography as well as cryptanalysis. Curve is a software that uses multiple cryptocurrencies to operate an automated market maker AMM service focused on stablecoins cryptocurrencies programmed to mimic other assets. A custodian is responsible for safely holding assets for an institution or individual for a variety of purposes.
Custody is a financial institution's legal capacity to keep and preserve financial assets for its clients to avoid asset theft or loss. The cypherpunk movement promotes the use of cryptography and other privacy-focused technologies to advance social and political progress. Daedalus Wallet Daedalus Wallet is a multi-platform, open-source, hierarchical-deterministic wallet that lets you generate an endless number of keys from a single seed.
A portion of the internet existing on darknets not indexed by search engines, that can only be accessed with specific software, configurations or authorizations. RenVM is driven by Darknodes, a decentralized network of computers. In exchange for compensation, they offer their computing power and storage space to everyone with certain conditions. Data privacy refers to the area of data protection and security that is responsible for the handling of sensitive data.
Data scraping or web scraping is the process of extracting information from a website into a spreadsheet or a local file on your computer or database. A term used for when ICOs will put up their tokens for sale. Day trading is the practice of frequently buying and selling assets in order to make a profit on intraday changes in their price. A temporary recovery in prices after a prolonged decrease. A death cross is a bearish technical trading indicator that occurs when the day moving average falls below the day moving average, indicating a big sell-off.
Decentralization maximalism refers to the belief that decentralization is the best approach and lifestyle to such a degree that any form of regulation does not need to exist. The Decentralization Ratio DR is the ratio of collateral value that is decentralized over the total stablecoin supply backed for those assets. Decentralization refers to the property of a system in which nodes or actors work in concert in a distributed fashion to achieve a common goal.
A type of application that runs on a decentralized network, avoiding a single point of failure. A method for decentralized funding of projects that introduces a form of governance in the ICO process, allowing backers to vote for the return of their funds if certain conditions are met.
A decentralized autonomous organization DAO is founded upon and governed by a set of computer-defined rules and blockchain-based smart contracts. Decentralized currency refers to bank-free methods of transferring wealth or ownership of any other commodity without needing a third party. A decentralized database is a modern-day storage solution that combines decentralized technologies with cutting-edge computing to randomly store data and files across multiple nodes, delivering high security and unmatched availability while being completely censorship-resistant.
A peer-to-peer exchange allowing users to trade cryptocurrency without the need for an intermediary. Decentralized governance refers to the procedures through which a platform's disintermediated, equitable management is carried out for blockchain networks and dApps. A decentralized identifier, or DID, refers to an ID that can be issued by an autonomous, independent, and decentralized platform that acts as a proof of ownership of digital identity. A decentralized marketplace, built on blockchain technology, allows traders or investors to trade with each other while eliminating middlemen.
They are available globally and require no intermediaries to make trades possible. A decentralized network is a collection of interconnected but distinct elements that interact with one another without the need for a centralized power or server. A decentralized payment network refers to a system where users, customers and vendors can exchange money without having to trust any third party to keep the network secure and operational.
Decentralized social media is a social media platform that is based on blockchain. Decentralized stablecoins are fully transparent, non-custodial with no or partial third-party control. The process of transforming encrypted data back into a format that is readable by a user or machine. The "deep web" is the part of the internet that is hidden from regular search engines. A movement encouraging alternatives to traditional, centralized forms of financial services. A DeFi aggregator brings together trades across various DeFi platforms into one place.
DeFi degenerates. A subculture associated with a disreputable corner of decentralized finance known for pump and dump schemes. A decline in the general level of prices for goods and services in an economy. An alternative to the Proof-of-Stake and Proof-of-Work consensus algorithms. A denial-of-service attack aims to temporarily make a computer or network service unavailable to its intended users. A graph that plots the requests to buy bids and the requests to sell asks on a chart, based on limit orders.
The chart shows the point at which the market is most likely to accept a transaction. A financial instrument deriving its value from the value of an underlying asset. A public market for derivatives, instruments such as futures contracts or options, which are derived from other forms of cryptocurrency assets. A desktop wallet is a type of software wallet that is usually non-custodial. A type of cryptocurrency wallet in which keys and addresses are created from a single seed.
DEX aggregators are a relatively new type of blockchain-based service that allow cryptocurrency traders to benefit from a large variety of financial tools in a single interface, often providing better liquidity and prices on different crypto pairs. Diamond Hands is a popular term on social media platforms. A measure of how hard it is to validate a new block on a blockchain. Digital technologies are these electronic tools that have the ability to generate, store or even process data.
Digital art is art and media that is made by using digital technology. A digital asset refers to the digital representation of something of value. A digital asset custodian is responsible to look after digital assets on behalf of an investor or client. Digital asset ecosystem is a term that defines everything involved in the crypto space.
From NFTs to futures, this terms sums up all the facilities offered and elements associated with the crypto universe. Eliminating the inherent weaknesses of the traditional barter economy, a digital barter economy makes it easier to trade both physical and virtual items anywhere in the world. A currency that exists only in digital form, as opposed to traditional physical currencies. Information used by a person or entity to identify themselves to a computer or network.
A method for proving the authenticity of a digital communication. Digital Signature Algorithm DSA is a signature algorithm, not an encryption algorithm, and uses public-key cryptography to generate digital signatures. No, not that. A dip is when markets experience a short or protracted downturn.
A way of structuring data, often used for data modelling, and increasingly as a consensus tool in cryptocurrencies. Discord is a web-based communication tool or application primarily built to enable communication between gamers. An attempt by a bad actor to disrupt the operation of an application, server or network by flooding it with traffic. Distributed ledgers are ledgers in which data is stored across a network of decentralized nodes. A distributed ledger does not necessarily involve a cryptocurrency and may be permissioned and private.
A database that is shared by multiple participants, in multiple places. The basis for blockchains. A network in which the data and applications are dependent on multiple sources, as opposed to one location. Diversification is a risk-management strategy that mixes a wide variety of investments within a portfolio. Documentation is a part of token economies that stores all the details of an asset on the blockchain. A measure of Bitcoin's value in the context of the larger cryptocurrency market.
DotSama is a new piece of crypto slang, used to describe the Kusama and Polkadot ecosystems in just one word. A double-spend attack is a practice in the world of digital currencies where a user gains the ability to spend the same cryptocurrency more than once. The maximum reduction in value from the peak value for an investment or fund that has occurred over a period of time.
In the world of blockchain, a dual-token economy or model means a project with two tokens, one of which is used for utility inside the network and the other one as security to raise funds for the crypto project. A collective market sell-off that occurs when large quantities of a particular cryptocurrency are sold in a short period of time.
Miniscule amounts of Bitcoin in a wallet — with a value that would be outweighed by the cost of a transaction fee. The acronym of Do Your Own Research — encouraging investors to complete due diligence into a project before investing. E-Signature An electronic signature, or e-signature, is any electronic mark sign, sound, symbol, etc. Economic utility is a term in economics that refers to the total satisfaction that a person can derive from consuming a good or service.
In computer science, an edge node is a computer that serves as an end-user gateway to form a connection with other nodes. The Elliott Wave Theory is an essential tool for many stock and crypto market traders. Email spoofing is a technique that is used in order to trick users into thinking that a message actually came from a different person.
Encryption is a method through which information can be made into code. Enterprise blockchain is the use of distributed ledger technology for non-speculative business purposes. Tailored for the needs of enterprises, these chains may be private or public. A group of organizations and companies working together to further develop the Ethereum network.
One entire run of the training dataset through the algorithm is referred to as an epoch in machine learning. Equity is the funds that would be returned to a company's shareholders if all of the company's assets were dissolved and all debts were paid off in the event of liquidation.
Erasure coding is a method of storing data at multiple locations after doing its segmentation, expansion, and encoding with redundant information. ERC digital token standard was created by Enjin and offers more security in comparison to older token standards. It can be used to create both fungible and non-fungible assets on the Ethereum network.
Tokens designed and used solely on the Ethereum platform. ERC is an Ethereum token standard that is powered by smart contracts that enable users to securely transfer tokens to a digital wallet. ERC is a tradable token standard spun out from ERC to enable a new way to engage with a token contract while staying backward compatible.
ERC is an ETH token standard that addresses the existing limitations of ERC 20 when it comes to the implementation of calls in transfers and approvals in particular. ERC facilitates the creation of tradable ERC tokens, each of which symbolizes a numberless share issued by a Delaware corporation. ERC is a new Ethereum token protocol that is designed to connect subscription businesses with customers and allows for subscription-based transactions.
A financial instrument where assets or cash are held by a third party while a buyer and a seller complete a deal. Electronic sports, commonly known as e-sports, is a term used for digital gaming competition, in which players battle against each other in an individual or team-based format often in a competition or event that offers huge monetary rewards to the winners. Some e-sports games are also available in a single-player mode.
Ethash is the algorithm utilized for the proof of work mining Ethereum and ETH-based cryptocurrencies. The form of payment used in the operation of the distribution application platform, Ethereum. Ethereum Request for Comment ERC is the protocol to introduce new improvements to the network by developers. Ethereum transaction are cryptographically signed instructions to initiate a transaction to update the state of the Ethereum network.
A Turing-complete virtual machine that enables execution of code exactly as intended; it is the runtime environment for every smart contract. Every Ethereum node runs on the EVM to maintain consensus across the blockchain. When a transaction is mined, smart contracts can emit events and write logs to the blockchain which the frontend can then process. Businesses that allow customers to trade cryptocurrencies for fiat money or other cryptocurrencies. A security that tracks a basket of assets such as stocks, bonds, and cryptocurrencies but can be traded like a single stock.
In other industries, this event occurs when a business stops shipping orders even if it is receiving payment for the new ones. Falling Knife A falling knife refers to the price dive of an asset and denotes a downward momentum of the financial market. Falling wedges, also known as descending wedges, have a distinct downward slope and a bullish bias in comparison to symmetrical triangles, which have no discernible slope and no bias.
The FATF Travel Rule requires virtual asset service providers to regulate information sharing for certain large transactions. A cryptocurrency reward system usually on a website or app, that rewards users for completing certain tasks. Fee tiers refer to the fee structure that determines the amount charged when investors deposit or withdraw money and execute trades on a crypto exchange.
It can take the form of physical cash, or it can be represented electronically, such as with bank credit. A fiat-on ramp is a way to get cryptocurrency from fiat, or regular money. A coin, token or asset issued on a blockchain that is linked to a government or bank-issued currency.
Field Programmable Gate Array is an integrated circuit that allows customers or designers to reconfigure as per requirement after the manufacturing process. The first-mover advantage refers to the launch of an innovative product or service which provides a head-start to a company by creating brand loyalty and penetrating markets before their future competitors.
A flash loan is a transaction in which a specific quantity of liquidity is borrowed and repaid in the same transaction or block. Flash loan attacks are when malicious actors exploit a smart contract. Flash loans are a type of uncollateralized lending used in decentralized finance DeFi. A hypothetical scenario where Ethereum's market cap overtakes Bitcoin's. An investment strategy where you buy something with the goal of reselling for a profit later, usually in a short period of time.
An acronym that stands for "Fear of Missing Out. Forks, or chain splits, create an alternate version of the blockchain, leaving two blockchains to run simultaneously. When an entirely new program has been developed from source code, taken from an open source software. A fractional stablecoin is one that is backed in two ways: collaterally-backed and algorithmically modified. A fraud proof is a technological method that functions as a bond in a decentralized environment that uses Optimistic Rollups ORs , which are sidechains that aim to reduce the costs and latency that dApps might encounter on a blockchain platform.
Front running is when you place a transaction in a queue when you have knowledge of a future transaction. Fully homomorphic encryption is a type of scheme where one can perform arbitrary computations on encrypted data and generate the same results as when performing those computations on the plaintext. A method in which you research the underlying value of an asset by looking at the technology, team, growth prospects and other indicators. Funding payments are periodic payments between traders.
These are designed to reduce the discrepancy between the perpetual market price and the spot market price. In cryptocurrency, fungibility is when a coin or token can be replaced by any other identical coin or token. A futures contract is a standardized legal agreement to buy or sell a particular commodity or asset at a predetermined price at a specified time in the future. Gains Gains refer to an increase in value or profit.
Game channels are the newest technological advancement in the world of blockchain gaming, as they enable fast gameplay by removing the wait time for block confirmations. With game channels, games and dApps can run off-chain securely, individually, and in near real-time. GameFi, better known as play-to-earn P2E games, is a rather new term in the field of both gaming and cryptocurrency industries. It references games that are designed with economic and financial aspects of blockchain and cryptocurrencies, enabling players to exert full control over their in-game assets to generate revenue.
A term used on the Ethereum platform that refers to a unit of measuring the computational effort of conducting transactions or smart contracts, or launch DApps in the Ethereum network. A term used on the Ethereum platform that refers to the maximum amount of gas the user is willing to spend on a transaction. A term used on the Ethereum platform that refers to the price you are willing to pay for a transaction. Gas Station Networks GSN allows you to build decentralized applications dApps which provide payment for transactions, so users do not need to hold Ether or ETH to pay for gas, easing their onboarding process and improving user acquisition and experience.
Gavin Wood is the co-founder of Parity Technologies, and one of the founders of Ethereum. Gem is a term for relatively unknown low-cap coins that have immense potential or are grossly undervalued. The first block of data that is processed and validated to form a new blockchain, often referred to as block 0 or block 1.
Geotagged non-fungible tokens NFT feature 3D versions of the street art alongside the corresponding geo-location. They allows art aficionados to own both the virtual and physical artwork without the need to remove the actual infrastructure it was originally painted on. Geth, short for Go Ethereum, is a command-line interface that allows developers to run full Ethereum nodes, mine the cryptocurrency and execute smart contracts.
GitHub is one of the most popular code hosting platforms, allowing developers to collaborate on various projects. A coin or token issued that represents a value of gold; for example, one physical gram of gold equals one coin.
Google Authenticator is a software-based verification system that generates unique one-time codes that are time-based on your mobile phone. In the world of cryptocurrencies, governance is defined as the people or organizations that have decision-making powers regarding the project. A governance token is a token that can be used to vote on decisions that influence an ecosystem. More commonly known as a graphics card, it is a computer chip that creates 3D images on computers, but has turned out to be efficient for mining cryptocurrencies.
The greater fool theory was first discussed by professor Burton Malkiel. As opposed to solo mining, group mining is when multiple people mine together. The denomination used in defining the cost of gas in transactions involving Ether. Hacking Hacking is the process of using a computer to manipulate another computer or computer system in an unauthorized fashion.
An event in which the total rewards per confirmed block halves. A hard cap is the absolute maximum supply of a digital asset. A type of protocol change that validates all previously invalid transactions, and invalidates all previously valid transactions. A hard fork combinator first designed by IOHK is a tool to combine protocols specifically on the Cardano blockchain after a hard fork has occurred.
A hard peg is an exchange rate policy, where a currency is set at a fixed rate against another currency. A hardware security module is a type of computing device that secures digital keys and encrypts data. A hardware wallet is a wallet for cryptocurrencies that usually resemble a USB stick.
A hash is the output result of a hashing algorithm, which creates a unique, fixed-length string to encrypt and secure a certain selection of arbitrary data. Any function used to map data of arbitrary size to data of a fixed size.
A unit of measurement for the amount of computing power being consumed by the network to continuously operate. A hedge contract is a form of insurance that investors use to hedge against the risk of financial loss. Typically, a hedge is designed to protect against price fluctuations in the market.
Hidden cap is an unknown limit to the amount of money a team elects to receive from investors in its initial coin offering ICO. The purpose of a hidden cap is to even the playing field by letting smaller investors put in money, without the large investors forming an accurate understanding of the total cap and adjusting their investment as a result.
A wallet that uses Hierarchical Deterministic HD protocol to support the generation of crypto-wallets from a single master seed using 12 mnemonic phrases. A type of passive investment strategy where you hold an investment for a long period of time, regardless of any changes in the price or markets.
Honeyminer is a cryptocurrency mining app available for download on multiple devices. The online storage of private keys allowing for quicker access to cryptocurrencies. A cryptocurrency wallet that is connected to the internet for hot storage of cryptoassets, as opposed to an offline, cold wallet with cold storage. A test used to determine whether or not an asset is a security.
This approach aims to bring together the security of PoW consensus and the governance and energy efficiency of PoS. Hyperinflation is defined as unrestricted growth in prices for goods and services in an economy. It happens when resources become limited, such as gas or food, and prices rise as demand outstrips supply.
Hyperledger is an umbrella project of open source blockchains and blockchain-related tools started by the Linux Foundation in to support the collaborative development of blockchain-based distributed ledgers. Immutable A property that defines the inability to be changed, especially over time.
Impermanent loss is when a liquidity provider has a temporary loss of funds because of volatility in a trading pair. In-the-money and out-of-the-money are options trading mechanisms that allow investors to benefit from additional tools to work with the market.
Pre-approving smart contracts to enable the platform to spend any amount of your coins. An infinite mint attack occurs when an unwanted entity or hacker mints an absurd "infinite" amount of tokens within a protocol. A general increase in prices and fall in the purchasing value of money.
A novel way of launching a project that focuses on people contributing skills to a platform rather than money. Short for Initial Coin Offering, an ICO is a type of crowdfunding, or crowdsale, using cryptocurrencies as a means of raising capital for early-stage companies. A type of crowdfunding where crypto start-ups generate capital by listing through an exchange.
Initial game offerings IGOs provide individuals with an opportunity to invest in gaming projects at an early stage that have the potential to offer huge returns after their launch. A crypto crowdfunding solution where projects can raise funds by listing a set of NFTs via a launchpad. An initial public offering IPO is the process of a company offering shares for purchase on the stock market for the first time.
Unlike existing fundraising models, ISPOs are more inclusive, decentralized, equitable, and secure. ITOs are similar to initial coin offerings — but have more of a focus on offering tokens with intrinsic utility in the form of software or usage in an ecosystem. Insider trading happens when someone purchases or sells stocks while possessing private, material information about that stock. Instant settlement network allows participants to exchange digital assets in real-time from anywhere in the world.
An Institutional Investor is an organization or a legal entity that trades in the market on behalf of its clients that may be retail investors. An exchange insurance fund is used to cover any unexpected losses from leveraged trading. This fund is used to prevent traders from bankruptcy in the event of liquidations.
An integrated development environment IDE is a type of software that helps you develop apps by merging many development tools into a single graphical user interface GUI. Intellectual property IP is a type of property that can be legally protected from being copied or sold — it includes intangible creations that result from human thinking such as a book, song, design, business method, or software.
The Intercontinental Exchange ICE is an American company founded in to purchase and operate global exchanges and clearing houses. A time-dependent charge or return made in proportion to the amount of money deposited, borrowed or lent. A person or entity that acts as the go-between different parties to bring about agreements or carry out directives.
An internal transaction, also known as a "message," is a byproduct of an EOA interaction with a contract address that results in Ether being transferred. A meme is an image, a video, or a piece of text that is copied and spread rapidly by internet users.
They are typically humorous but can also be critical as well. Internet of Things IoT is a global interconnected network of devices, sensors and software that can collect and exchange data with each other in real-time over the Internet. Internet Service Providers ISPs are commercial entities that provide end-users with access to the internet.
Blockchain interoperability, or cross-chain interoperability, is the ability to see and share information across multiple blockchains. The InterPlatery File System is a peer-to-peer, distributed system for storing and accessing files, as well as websites and applications, which relies on content addressing rather than location.
Investing is when you put money in a financial scheme with the intent of making a gain. Investment vehicles are the assets classes in which investors put their money with hopes to increase the value of their portfolio in the future. IP addresses are unique numeric addresses assigned to devices connected to the internet or a local network.
Kimchi premium is a phenomenon occurring in South Korean crypto exchanges, making valuations appear higher than on other international exchanges. The Klinger volume oscillator is a volume-based technical indicator that compares volume to price to forecast price reversals in the financial markets. Short for Know Your Customer, these are checks that crypto exchanges and trading platforms must complete to verify the identity of their customers.
Laser eyes is a viral Twitter meme that is used by Bitcoiners who attempt to push the price of BTC to its new all-time highs. It was originated with a hashtag, LaserRayUntil, back in February The Law of Accelerating Returns is a hypothesis by Ray Kurzweil based on the observations that technologies or any evolutionary system tend to progress in an exponential fashion. Layer 0 is a network framework running beneath the blockchain.
It is made up of protocols, connections, hardware, miners, and everything else that forms the foundation of the blockchain ecosystem. Layer 2 is the name given to a scaling solution that enables high throughput of transactions whilst fully inheriting the security of the underlying blockchain that it is built on. A layer-1 blockchain is a set of solutions that improve the base protocol itself. A record of financial transactions that cannot be changed, only appended with new transactions.
Money that a trader borrows from a brokerage, enabling them to gain far greater exposure to a position than what their capital allows. In the world of cryptocurrencies, leveraged tokens give you a leveraged position in trading, meaning that your earnings and losses are multiplied. Libp2p is an open network protocol for decentralized peer-to-peer networking.
Light nodes are typically downloaded wallets and are connected to full nodes to further validate the information that is stored on the blockchain. A limit order is a type of order to purchase or sell a security at a specified price or a better one. Tools that enable traders to automatically buy or sell cryptocurrencies on a trading platform when a certain price target is reached.
A liquid market features a large number of buyers and sellers. It is a platform where all the trades are executed with ease and at a low cost. Liquidation refers to the conversion of an asset or cryptocurrency for fiat or its equivalents. How easily a cryptocurrency can be bought and sold without impacting the overall market price. A liquidity bootstrapping pool is essentially a contract that manages a core pool containing tokens to be used on an exchange. Liquidity mining is a mechanism or process in which participants supply cryptocurrencies into liquidity pools, and are rewarded with fees and tokens based on their share of the total pool liquidity.
Liquidity pools are crypto assets that are kept to facilitate the trading of trading pairs on decentralized exchanges. Liquidity providers are decentralized exchange users who fund a liquidity pool with tokens they own. Liquidity provider tokens or LP tokens are tokens issued to liquidity providers on a decentralized exchange DEX that run on an automated market maker AMM protocol.
A guarantee that a system will continue to provide data, and that no centralized authority can shut down its services. Location swap allows the change of claim to the assets manifested in the form of a token with no effect on other attributes.
A situation where you buy a cryptocurrency with the expectation of selling it at a higher price for profit later. A long position longing refers to the situation where an investor buys a cryptocurrency or any other financial instrument to sell it later when the price goes high. Mainnet An independent blockchain running its own network with its own technology and protocol.
Mainnet swap refers to the shift of a cryptocurrency project from one blockchain network to another which in most cases is its own native blockchain network. A practice where a trader uses borrowed funds from a broker to trade a cryptocurrency. An area or arena, online or offline, in which commercial dealings are conducted.
Market balances refer to the outstanding amount of tokens or coins after a trade has been made on a decentralized exchange DEX. It is one of the ways to rank the relative size of a cryptocurrency. The maker places an order to buy or sell at a quoted price , while a taker accepts that placed order to execute the buy or sell at the quoted price. A purchase or sale of a cryptocurrency on an exchange at the current best available price.
Through signaling, market participants are essentially creating a volatile market which can help to point out the opportunities to the investors. Developed by Input Output Hong Kong IOHK , Marlowe is an easy-to-use programming language for experts with no programming expertise or knowledge, enabling them to write smart contracts for financial products. Masternodes are a server maintained by its owner, somewhat like full nodes, but with additional functionalities such as anonymizing transactions, clearing transactions, and participating in governance and voting.
It was initially popularized by Dash to reward owners of these servers for maintaining a service for the blockchain. The best approximation of the maximum amount of coins that will ever exist in the lifetime of the cryptocurrency. A medium of exchange can be seen as an intermediary instrument or system that is used to facilitate a sale, purchase or even trade of goods between parties. Meme Economy is a satirical online subculture in which memes are addressed in financial language as if they were commodities or capital assets with varying prices.
Memecoins are the crypto tokens created as a joke or meme and claim to offer huge gains to holders. A Memorandum of Understanding MoU is defined as a written agreement between two or more parties, which is legally-non binding. A mempool is the node's collection of all of the unconfirmed transactions that it has seen. Mercenary capital refers to the opportunistic capital provided by investors seeking to take advantage of the short-term incentive programs conducted by a platform for individual gain.
A tree structure in cryptography, in which every leaf node is labelled with the hash of a data block and every non-leaf node is labelled with the cryptographic hash of the labels of its child nodes. Hash trees allow efficient and secure verification of the contents of blockchains, as each change propagates upwards so verification can be done by simply looking at the top hash. An online digital wallet that allows users to manage, transfer and receive Ethereum, operating as an extension to a regular browser.
A metatransaction executes a transaction signed by another party on behalf of the original signer, ferrying this original transaction onto the public blockchain rather than the person having to do it themselves. A metaverse is a digital universe that contains all the aspects of the real world, such as real-time interactions and economies. It offers a unique experience to end-users.
Metaverse-as-a-Service MaaS is a novel technological solution that anyone can use to build their own metaverses. The service provider offers the necessary infrastructure to enable both developers and non-technical users to create immersive virtual experiences alongside additional features like in-game tokenomics, NFTs, play-to-earn models, and much more.
One millionth of a bitcoin or 0. Often confused as a fork of Bitcoin. A micropayment is essentially a small transaction that is carried out online and can be as small as a fraction of a cent. A business model where very small payments can be made in exchange for common digital goods and services, such as pages of an ebook or items in a game. Mimetic theory explains human behavior and culture, and when understood contextually in economics, it deals with how things become desirable to individuals.
Some cryptocurrencies have a system through which miners can be rewarded with newly-created cryptocurrencies for creating blocks through contributing their hash power. Cryptocurrencies with this ability to generate new cryptocurrencies through the process of confirmation is said to be mineable. These cryptocurrencies are said to be not mineable. Minecraft is a video game where players can essentially create and break apart different kinds of blocks in a three-dimensional world.
Miner extractable value MEV is a measure of the profit a miner can make through their ability to arbitrarily include, exclude, or re-order transactions within the blocks they produce. Contributors to a blockchain taking part in the process of mining. They can be professional miners or organizations with large-scale operations, or hobbyists who set up mining rigs at home or in the office. Minimum Collateralization Ratio MCR is the least amount of collateral that needs to be pledged against a given loan.
A minimum viable product MVP is a product that has enough features to attract early-adopter customers and validate a product idea. A process where blocks are added to a blockchain, verifying transactions. It is also the process through which new bitcoin or some altcoins are created.
An integral component of blockchain, a mining algorithm is the set of rules or instructions that a computer follows to generate a valid block. Cloud mining or mining-as-a-service allows users to rent the mining capacity of hardware in companies. Another term for cloud mining, where users can rent or invest in mining capacity online.
The mining difficulty of a cryptocurrency is how difficult it is to find the right hash for the next block. A mining farm is when a group of miners mine together for a variety of advantageous reasons, like energy use. An arrangement where a number of miners pool their resources to increase their chances of finding the next block. The income that miners receive after finding and validating a block.
Mining rewards are the rewards that crypto miners receive for mining a new block on the blockchain. An alternative term to Fish, describing someone with a small crypto investment. Minting is the process of generating new coins using the proof-of-stake mechanism and adding them to the circulation to be traded. A list of words used in sequence to access or restore your crypto assets.
Mnemonics are memory aids with a system such as letters or associations that help in recall. A mobile wallet is a crypto wallet installed on a mobile device. The Monetary Authority of Singapore is the central bank managing money supply and regulating interest rates, inflation rate, and value for Singaporean currency. The Money Flow Index MFI is a technical indicator that measures the buying or selling pressure of an asset through price and volume.
Money laundering is a technique used for illegal businesses to hide their money from the authorities. A financial market where short-term lending or borrowing takes place. A business entity that provides money transfer services or payment instruments. A situation where there is a continuous upward movement in the price of a cryptocurrency. Moore's Law states that computers' speed and capability will increase every year, even as cost goes down. The programming language for developing projects to run on the Internet Computer blockchain.
Moving Average MA is a technical indicator that reacts to the trends of the financial markets and is used by market experts to predict the direction of an asset's trend. A crypto exchange for buying and selling Bitcoin that closed in after a major hack. A multi-coin wallet, also known as a multi-chain wallet, allows users to keep more than one crypto asset belonging to multiple blockchain networks.
Multi-party computation MPC as-a-service is a business model where consumers enterprises and individuals can rent MPC nodes from an MPC service provider instead of outright buying them or building them from scratch. An added layer of security by requiring more than one key to authorize a transaction. Multisignature crypto wallets require more than a single signature to sign a transaction.
A network refers to all nodes in the operation of a blockchain at any given moment in time. Network latency refers to the amount of time it takes for a computer on one network to communicate with a computer on another network. Nick Szabo is the inventor of Bit Gold and the use of smart contracts.
A no-coiner is someone who has no cryptocurrency in his or her investment portfolio and firmly believes that cryptocurrency in general will fail. The most basic unit of blockchain infrastructure that stores data. Nominators are one of two main actors who are involved in a blockchain network that uses the nominated proof-of-stake NPoS consensus algorithm.
Usually referring to the storage of keys, in relation to wallets or exchanges, a non-custodial setup is one in which private keys are held by the user directly. The term "non-fungible assets" describes non-fungibility within a collection of similar assets being issued by a single party. Non-fungible tokens NFTs are cryptocurrencies that do not possess the property of fungibility. When a transaction is hashed by a miner, an arbitrary number meant to be used only once is generated, called a nonce.
Notarization on blockchain simply uses the intrinsic nature and advantages of blockchain technology to let anyone create a timestamped artifact. The authorship and identity of this artifact can easily and securely be identified at any point. Odysee Odysee is a server-less video hosting and distribution platform built on top of the LBRY protocol.
A transaction that is processed outside the blockchain network with an increased speed and reduced cost. Off-chain governance is a type of blockchain governance in which decisions are made informally, away from the primary code base of the blockchain.
An off-chain transaction is defined as a second-layer protocol where the transactions occur on a network and move value outside of the blockchain. A currency that is created minted outside of the specified blockchain ledger but is accepted or used. Treasury branch that regulates all national banks, federal savings associations, federal branches and foreign bank agencies. The act of storing cryptocurrencies in devices or systems not connected to the internet. An offshore account is defined as a foreign bank account with assets and investments set outside of your origin country or country of residence.
On-balance volume OBV is a technical trading indicator that forecasts an asset's price movements based on the volume flow. Transactions that are recorded on the blockchain itself and shared with all of the participants are done on-chain. A currency that is both minted on the blockchain ledger and also used on the blockchain ledger, such as Bitcoin. A situation where two orders for cryptocurrency are placed simultaneously, with a rule in place to enforce that if one is accepted, the other is cancelled.
The act of storing cryptocurrencies in devices or systems connected to the internet. Open source is a philosophy, with participants believing in the free and open sharing of information in pursuit of the greater common good. The price at which a cryptocurrency opens at a time period or the programming principle of software parts being extendable.
Opera Fantom is a permissionless, open-source framework that allows everyone to engage in the network through staking and governance. An operating system OS is a software and a resource manager that sits between the hardware and the user. This compares to a price-feed oracle, which relies on nodes to provide consistent price feed data on-chain.
An optimistic rollup is a type layer 2 scaling solution that relies on off-chain computation to trustlessly record transactions that happen in the layer 2. A contract giving the buyer the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell an underlying asset or instrument at a specified strike price.
A public market for options, giving the buyer an option to buy or sell a cryptocurrency at a specific strike price, on or before a specific date. Oracle manipulation is when an oracle smart contract is manipulated by hackers. An agent that finds and verifies information, bridging the real world and the blockchain by providing data to smart contracts for execution of said contracts under specified conditions. An order book comprises different key information regarding an asset. A valid block on the blockchain that is not part of the main chain.
An orphaned block is a block where the parent block does not exist or is unknown. Over-collateralization OC is the provision of collateral that is worth more than enough to cover potential losses in cases of default. Over-the-counter is defined as a transaction made outside of an exchange, often peer-to-peer through private trades. Over-the-counter refers to the process of how securities are traded through a broker-dealer network as opposed to a centralized exchange.
When a cryptocurrency has been purchased by more and more investors over time, with its price increasing for an extended period of time. When a cryptocurrency has been sold by more and more investors over time, with its price decreasing for an extended period of time.
Welcome to this smart contract workshop organised by Extropy. In this tutorial, we are going to build a simple Score Dapp on Ethereum. You are going to learn Solidity, a programming language to create smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain.
Solidity is a statically typed language. So you always need to declare the variable type here uint before the variable name. You can also specify the number of bits, by range of 8 bits. Here are some examples below:. We need a way to write and retrieve the value of our score. We achieve this by creating a getter and setter functions. In Solidity, you declare a function with the keyword function followed the function name here getScore.
Definition : In Solidity, a setter is a function that modifies the value of a variable modifies the state of the contract. To creates a setter , you must specify the parameters when you declare your function. Try entering this code in Remix. We are still not there. The compiler should give you the following error:. There are four types of visibility for functions in Solidity : public , private , external and internal. The table below explains the difference.
Try entering that in Remix. We are still not getting there! You should receive the following Warning on Remix. Because our function getScore only reads from the contract state, it is a view function. The msg variables offers two associated fields:. We should have a feature that enables only certain addresses to change the score your address. To achieve this, we will introduce the notion of modifiers.
Definition : A modifier is a special function that enables us to change the behaviour of functions in Solidity. It is mostly used to automatically check a condition before executing a function. Check that the address of the caller msg. If 1 is true, it passes the check. A modifier can receive arguments like functions. Here is an example of a modifier that requires the caller to send a specific amount of Ether.
We will define that in the constructor. Definition : A constructor is a function that is executed only once when the contract is deployed on the Ethereum blockchain. Constructors are optional. Prior to version 0. This syntax was deprecated and is not allowed in version 0. Events are only used in Web3 to output some return values. They are a way to show the changes made into a contract. To illustrate, we are going to create an event to display the new score set.
This event will be passed within our setScore function. Remember that you should pass the score after you have set the new variable. It will create an index that will enable to search for eventsvia Web3 in your front-end. However, they are only visible outside the contract. Any recursive function can be rewritten into an iterative one.
But for many tasks a recursive solution is fast enough and easier to write and support. Naturally, the formula is the fastest solution. It uses only 3 operations for any number n. The math helps! The loop variant is the second in terms of speed. In both the recursive and the loop variant we sum the same numbers. But the recursion involves nested calls and execution stack management. That removes the burden on memory, so counting sumTo becomes possible.
The factorial of a natural number is a number multiplied by "number minus one" , then by "number minus two" , and so on till 1. The factorial of n is denoted as n! The task is to write a function factorial n that calculates n! Hint: n! For instance: 3! In other words, the result of factorial n can be calculated as n multiplied by the result of factorial n And the call for n-1 can recursively descend lower, and lower, till 1.
The basis of recursion is the value 1. In other words, the next number is a sum of the two preceding ones. Fibonacci numbers are related to the Golden ratio and many natural phenomena around us. The function should be fast. The call to fib 77 should take no more than a fraction of a second. For instance, fib 77 may hang up the engine for some time eating all CPU resources. The same values are re-evaluated again and again. Here we can see that the value of fib 3 is needed for both fib 5 and fib 4.
So fib 3 will be called and evaluated two times completely independently. We can clearly notice that fib 3 is evaluated two times and fib 2 is evaluated three times. We can optimize that by remembering already-evaluated values: if a value of say fib 3 is calculated once, then we can just reuse it in future computations. Instead of going from n down to lower values, we can make a loop that starts from 1 and 2 , then gets fib 3 as their sum, then fib 4 as the sum of two previous values, then fib 5 and goes up and up, till it gets to the needed value.
On each step we only need to remember two previous values. The approach is called dynamic programming bottom-up. Please note that we use a temporary variable tmp to walk over the list. Technically, we could use a function parameter list instead:. In the future we may need to extend a function, do something else with the list. If we change list , then we lose such ability.
Talking about good variable names, list here is the list itself. The first element of it. And it should remain like that. From the other side, the role of tmp is exclusively a list traversal, like i in the for loop. The recursive variant of printList list follows a simple logic: to output a list we should output the current element list , then do the same for list.
Technically, the loop is more effective. These two variants do the same, but the loop does not spend resources for nested function calls. Output a single-linked list from the previous task Output a single-linked list in the reverse order. So what we can do is to first go through the items in the direct order and remember them in an array, and then output what we remembered in the reverse order:.
Please note that the recursive solution actually does exactly the same: it follows the list, remembers the items in the chain of nested calls in the execution context stack , and then outputs them. We want to make this open-source project available for people all around the world.
Tutorial map. Light theme Dark theme. Our first topic will be recursion. If you are not new to programming, then it is probably familiar and you could skip this chapter. Recursion is usually shorter. A recursive solution is usually shorter than an iterative one. Please note:. Tasks Sum all numbers till the given one. The solution using a loop:. Calculate factorial. We can write a definition of factorial like this: n! By definition, a factorial n! Fibonacci numbers. Write a function fib n that returns the n-th Fibonacci number.
The first solution we could try here is the recursive one. Fibonacci numbers are recursive by definition:. Output a single-linked list. Loop-based solution Loop-based solution The loop-based variant of the solution:. Recursive solution Recursive solution The recursive variant of printList list follows a simple logic: to output a list we should output the current element list , then do the same for list.
Output a single-linked list in the reverse order. Make two solutions: using a loop and using a recursion. Using a recursion Using a recursion The recursive logic is a little bit tricky here. We need to first output the rest of the list and then output the current one:. Using a loop Using a loop The loop variant is also a little bit more complicated than the direct output.