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It falls below that level only days later, and does not reach the landmark again for over three years. A t-Student and Mann Whitney U tests were used to compare independent samples, and the t-Student and Wilcoxon tests were performed to determine differences between paired samples. Table II shows a comparative analysis of baseline characteristics before the intervention. Table III presents body composition values by group before and after the intervention.
Moreover, the delta of both, CG and IG, were compared. Significant differences were found in almost all analyzed variables of the IG, decreasing weight by a 4. Table IV shows PhA, reactance, impedance,and body water values by group before and after the intervention. Besides, the delta of both, CG and IG, were compared. Finally, all variables related to body water significantly increased in the IG, whereas CG did not have any significant variations.
Table II Mean and standard deviation of baseline characteristics of the body composition and bioelectrical impedance. Table III Mean and standard deviation values of body composition by bioelectrical impedance ofthe control and intervention groupbefore and after the intervention. Table IV Mean and standard deviation values of phase angle, reactance, impedance, and body water of the controland intervention group before and after the intervention.
The present study aimed to determine the effects of a week concurrent training protocol on body composition and PhA in physically inactive young women. The main findings were, on the one hand, a statistically significant increase of muscle mass, fat-free mass, PhA, and a decrease in fat mass in the IG; on the other hand, the CG decreased in all variables above mentioned but any statistically significant. These results may be helpful due mainly to scarce evidence in the type of exercise and PhA modifications in this population.
The concurrent training has resistance and aerobic components, which could represent a key point in the significant modifications on body composition of the IG, because it combines two types of training widely documented in the health field Garber et al.
A week resistance training research on women to determine the changes on body composition without inducing an inflammatory response found a decrease in fat mass and an increase in lean mass without eliciting an inflammatory response Ferreira et al. Furthermore, a study about resistance training and body composition found that body fat percentage was lower when women exercised more; however, these benefits could be reduced for menopause Burrup et al.
Therefore, age could be a key point to intervene and modify body composition variables in women. In relation to aerobic training, a piece of research compared 3 types of training on body composition in men and women, dividing exercise according to intensity.
The main findings were that the more intense the aerobic exercise was, the higher the benefits were. Another study found enhancements in light-to-moderate aerobic exercise performed by women with overweight and obesity, compared with a control group. However, moderate intensity exercise had a higher impact on weight, BMI, body fat percentage, fat mass, lean mass and waist-to-hip ratio Marandi et al.
While results are similar with our study but a fewer number of training per week, the latter research had participants with higher values in fat mass, which could explain the significant reduction of body composition components due to differences are most significant at the beginning of the intervention or when participants are more deconditioned.
Each component of the concurrent training proposes modifications in body composition independently. However, interventions have been carried out to determine the effects of resistance and simultaneous aerobic training on body variables. For instance, a study investigated the effects of two types of training in healthy obese women; high-impact aerobics and low-impact aerobics combined with strength training.
High-impact aerobics enhanced loss weight and fat mass, whereas low-impact aerobics combined with strength training improved fat-free mass, aerobic fitness, and muscle strength. Furthermore, both exercise methods decreased weight, fat mass, and cardiovascular disease risks Said et al.
Another study that compared the effects of the endurance training and endurance strength training found that both types of training provided similar benefits to weight, fat mass and lean mass Skrypnik et al. Finally, a piece of research on obese adolescents compared the effect of aerobic training and concurrent training, finding that both types of exercise provided similar outcomes on weight fat-free mass, and fat mass Monteiro et al. These findings are consistent with the results of the present study, in which significant changes in almost all body composition variables were observed in the IG.
This could be explained because this group had both type of exercise 5 days per week, and the variation of body composition has been specifically associated with type of aerobic and strength training to decrease fat mass or increase fat free mass Willis et al. Phase angle. A systematic review and meta-analysis about the PA and PhA found a positive effect between variables, being the PhA a useful marker to determine the prognosis of the cell health Mundstock et al.
Several studies have evaluated the response of the PhA through different types and intensity exercises. One of them analyzed the PhA through resistance training, finding an increase of the PhA independently of sex, which could be attributed to the rising of the intracellular water Ribeiro et al. This increase is caused mainly by cellular hydration, which reduces the resistive components of the body tissues; however, the results of this study show not only a decrease in the resistance, but also an increase in the reactance.
It has been documented previously how exercise modifies body water, decreasing the resistance and therefore the PhA Ribeiro et al. Nevertheless, the increase of the resistance might be due to the aerobic exercise performed for the IG and the increase of the body cell mass, because it has been proven that there is an association between this increase and exercise performance Pigtowska et al. Whereas the hypothesis lacks robust evidence, the scarcity of studies that have determined how the aerobic exercise affects the PhA justifies the need to study further in this field Mundstock et al.
Regarding endurance exercise on PhA, a pilot study on obese women that compared the effects of an endurance training program found that endurance training added to a whole-body vibration training had better results on PhA. Nonetheless, the endurance exercise alone decreased on this indicator Wilms et al.
Whereas the sample was small, and the follow-uplasted just 6 weeks, the current evidence lacks studies with these characteristics. Thus, it is important to add background to determine the relation dose-response of these exercise types on bioelectrical parameters related to health. Lastly, only a single paper has proven the outcomes of the concurrent training on PhA; nevertheless, the participants were older women with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
That is why this study is not suitable for our research analysis Jungblut et al. The results of total PhA of the IG after the intervention are concordant with a systematic review and meta-analysis carried out in more than , subjects which found that women aged 19 to 28 years had a mean value of 6.
Furthermore, the values obtained in our study were higher than the ones obtained from a study carried out in more than , German women, which established cut-off points by, age, and BMI; this provided reference values to women aged 20 to 29 years with normal weight and a PhA of 5.
On the other hand, a review that established cut-off points in different populations, defined a PhA value of 7. These differences could be due to the variability of the impedance method, which has been mentioned in the previous research. Concurrent training seems to be an appropriate alternative to modify body composition and PhA in young women.
This is due to the fact that the stimulus caused by endurance exercise and resistance exercise decreased the fat mass and increased the lean mass. Whereas the results could be predicted considering type and volume of exercise, the reduction of the resistance and rising of the reactance that positively modified the PhA suggest that results might be useful to choose the approach and exercise prescription in a population that requires improving their health condition.
Lastly, it has been confirmed that concurrent training provides significant changes in all body segments; thus, it is suggested the use of the concurrent training protocol of the present study or a similar one in order to enhance body composition and bioelectrical parameters linked to health. Strength and limitations. Body composition was not evaluated by the gold standard which could increase the variability of the outcomes. Moreover, participants were not chosen and allocated randomly due to both groups belonged to different contexts university students [CG] and members of a military units [IG] , which represents a selection bias towards the outcomes.
In the case of the CG, certain aspects were not covered, which could have interfered with the results. Therefore, this could represent another bias towards the outcomes by not controlling these variables. On the other hand, one of the strengths of our study has relation to the fact that the IG constantly controlled all variables, because this group consisted of members of The Chilean Air Force. This means that all participants had similar rest, eating and physical activity routines.
However, overweight and higher values of fat mass at the beginning of intervention could explain the significant decrease in these parameters regarding the CG. Future implications. The use of bioelectrical impedance and, particularly, application of the PhA on the clinical field has produced great results for the scientific community.
Consequently, the application of this method in a preventive way could have favorable results for the population. It seems reasonable enough to conduct studies that allow to know the outcomes of different protocols of training on PhA in different populations, age groups, and health conditions.
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Popular Statistics Topics Markets. The first two were due to events involving Tesla and Coinbase, respectively, whilst the latter. Another reason, according to experts, was an electricity blackout in the Xinjiang region in China. This unexpected development led to a decline in the Bitcoin hashrate - how many Bitcoins are being mined — and potentially spooked investors into selling their assets. According to a research based off IP addresses from so-called hashers that used certain Bitcoin mining pools, more than half of all the Bitcoin mining occurred in China.
Is the world running out of Bitcoin? Unlike fiat currency like the U. It is believed that Bitcoin will run out by , despite more powerful mining equipment. Because of this, a Bitcoin mining transaction could equal the energy consumption of a small country in Cryptocurrencies have few metrices available that allow for forecasting, if only because it is rumored that only few cryptocurrency holders own a large portion of available supply.
On top of this, most people who use cryptocurrency-related services worldwide are retail clients rather than institutional investors. This means outlooks on whether Bitcoin prices will fall or grow are difficult to measure, as movements from one large whale already having a significant impact on this market. Loading statistic Show source. Download for free You need to log in to download this statistic Register for free Already a member?
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