The membrane-anchored form of the betacellulin can activate the epidermal growth factor receptor EGFR. Betacellulin stimulates the proliferation of retinal pigment epithelial and vascular smooth muscle cells but did not stimulate the growth of several other cell types, such as endothelial cells and fetal lung fibroblasts.
The mRNA coding for betacellulin was found to be slightly higher compared in the rat sciatic nerve segment after nerve damage, suggesting that betacellulin can play a role in peripheral nerve regeneration. Immunohistochemistry has been used to look for betacellulin expression in Schwann cells.
Treating cells with betacellulin recombinant protein can be used to investigate the role of betacellulin in managing Schwann cells. A co-culture assay can also used to assess the effect of Schwann cell-secreted betacellulin on neurons. The membrane-bound precursor is cleaved to yield mature secreted mBTC. BTC is synthesized in a wide range of adult tissues and in many cultured cells, including smooth muscle cells and epithelial cells.
The amino acid sequence of mature mBTC is This caused the therapy resistance in glioblastoma GBM. The transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 STAT3 was identified as the therapeutic target for glioblastoma. This was presented in the study of betacellulin in ovarian cancer progression. Activation of EGFR up-regulating the Cx43 that is relating to the development and migration of ovarian cancer.
Betacellulin is responsible for binding and activating the EGFR which means betacellulin up-regulates Cx43 expression and cell migration. Osteoblasts, which are responsible for forming and mineralizing osteoid, express EGFRs and alter rates of proliferation and differentiation in response to EGF receptor activation. Transgenic mice over-expressing the EGF-like ligand betacellulin BTC exhibit increased cortical bone deposition; however , because the transgene is ubiquitously expressed in these mice, the identity of cells affected by BTC and responsible for increased cortical bone thickness remains unknown.
This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine , which is in the public domain. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens. GO protein binding phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase activity protein tyrosine kinase activity epidermal growth factor receptor binding growth factor activity.
National Center for Biotechnology Information, U. National Library of Medicine. PMID March Molecular Medicine. PMC April Cellular Signalling. S2CID Anticancer Research. June Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. July European Journal of Endocrinology. September BMC Medical Genetics.
Methane and acetylene represent cleaner fuels, which are considered as ideal alternatives to fossil fuels. Due to low volumetric energy d. In this review, we firstly introduced the development history on the design and synthesis of porous metal-org. At last, some structure-property relationships and synthetic strategies for improving gas adsorption properties with respect to them were summarized.
Cation exchange is an emerging synthetic route for modifying the secondary building units SBUs of metal-org. This technique was used extensively to enhance the properties of nanocrystals and mols. To harness cation exchange as a rational tool, the authors need to elucidate its governing factors.
Not nearly enough exptl. The authors address which SBUs undergo exchange, why certain ions replace others, how the framework influences the process, the role of the solvent, and current applications. Using these guidelines, certain trends emerge from the available data and missing expts. If future studies follow this framework, then a more comprehensive body of observations will furnish a deeper understanding of cation exchange and inspire future applications.
American Chemical Society. Similar to the parent compd. Mixed-Metal Metal-Organic Frameworks. Mixed-metal MOFs are metal-org. They are prepd. More difficult is the accurate characterization of these materials. Is the formed product a mixt. Are the metals randomly distributed or do they form domains. What is the oxidn. How do the metals mutually influence each other, and impact the material's performance. Advanced characterization techniques are required e. X-ray absorption spectroscopy, magnetic resonance and electron microscopy.
Computational tools at multiple scales are also often applied. In almost every case, a judicious choice of several techniques is required to unambiguously characterize the mixed-metal MOF. Although still in their infancy, several applications are emerging for mixed-metal MOFs, that improve on conventional monometallic MOFs.
In the field of gas sorption and storage, esp. In the case of flexible MOFs, the breathing behavior, and in particular the pressure at which the MOF opens, can be tailored. In heterogeneous catalysis, new cascade and tandem reactions become possible, with particular focus on reactions where the two metals in close proximity truly form a mixed-metal transition state.
The bimetallic MOF should have a clear benefit over a mixt. Another very promising application lies in the fields of luminescence and sensing. By tuning the lanthanide metals in mixed-metal lanthanide MOFs and by using the org.
Of course there are also still open challenges, as also mixed-metal MOFs do not escape the typical drawbacks of MOFs, such as low stability in moisture and possible metal leaching in liqs. The ease of synthesis of mixed-metal MOFs is a large bonus.
In this crit. MOFs have versatile structures, high surface areas and high pore vols. There are many MOFs that have high H adsorption capacities at low temps. The highest H storage capacity reported so far is However, the high H capacities of MOFs at cryogenic temps. This is because the H adsorption in MOFs is weak physisorption and the interaction energies between the H mols.
DOE targets for an on-board hydrogen system, a serious challenge is still present in the design and synthesis of the MOF materials. We may expect that highly stable MOFs having a large surface area and pore vol. A , 3 , — , DOI: A novel type of bimetallic-org.
The desulfurization performance of the prepd. From the obtained breakthrough curves, both the breakthrough capacity and the satn. The satd. Vitillo, Jenny G. The role of exposed metal sites in increasing the H2 storage performances in metal-org. The onset temp. This relationship can be ascribed to the different nature and accessibility of the metal sites. On the basis of a pure energetic evaluation, it was obsd.
Unfortunately, upon comparison of the hydrogen amts. This means that if control of MOF surface area can benefit the total stored amts. These observations lead to the prediction that efficient H2 storage by physisorption can be obtained by increasing the surface d. Kim, Min; Cahill, John F. Postsynthetic ligand and metal ion exchange PSE processes readily occur in several inert metal-org.
Ligand exchange can occur between solid samples, as was demonstrated under relatively mild conditions with two robust, topol. Ligand PSE is not obsd. These PSE reactions were monitored and the products characterized by a no. To show the potential synthetic utility of this approach, the PSE process was used to prep.
Finally, expts. Also, PSE is useful in prepg. Science , , — , DOI: Chui, Stephen S. Guy; Williams, Ian D. Science Washington, D. American Association for the Advancement of Science. Although zeolites and related materials combine nanoporosity with high thermal stability, they are difficult to modify or derivatize in a systematic way. Unlike zeolites, the channel linings can be chem.
TGA and high-temp. Hydrogen Energy , 37 , — , DOI: Hydrogen storage capacity has been investigated on a copper-based metal org. The cryst. Hydrogen adsorption study shows that this material can store 0. The existence of Cu II in cryst. The sharp feature at C , , — , DOI: By intensity anal. X-ray and EPR data verify the anal.
Surface areas were detd. H2O mols. Their assignment was also confirmed by calcn. Dalton Trans. Gotthardt, Meike A. The bimetallic metal-org. H2 uptake in a series of microporous metal-org. These results demonstrate that max. H2 storage capacity in MOFs correlates well to surface area, and that feasible volumetric uptakes can be realized even in highly porous materials.
A , 4 , — , DOI: Kaur, Gurpreet; Rai, Rohit K. A simple methodol. Kapelewski, Matthew T. H holds promise as a clean alternative automobile fuel, but its on-board storage presents significant challenges due to the low temps.
The opportunity to significantly reduce the required pressure for high d. H2 storage persists for metal-org. The measurement of H2 adsorption in such materials under conditions most relevant to on-board storage is crucial to understanding how these materials would perform in actual applications, although such data have to date been lacking.
In the present work, the metal-org. Based upon adsorption isotherm data, Ni2 m-dobdc was found to be the top-performing physisorptive storage material with a usable volumetric capacity between and 5 bar of The results provide benchmark characteristics for comparison with future attempts to achieve improved adsorbents for mobile hydrogen storage applications. Flammable H gas is used at high pressures and low temps.
This is dangerous both from a flammability perspective and from the perspective of working with gases at high pressures, both of which can create situations that are dangerous if the proper procedures are not followed. The regioisomeric linker alters the symmetry of the ligand field at the metal sites, leading to increases of 0.
A variety of techniques, including powder X-ray and neutron diffraction, inelastic neutron scattering, IR spectroscopy, and first-principles electronic structure calcns. Importantly, similar enhancements can be anticipated for the gas storage and sepn. Elsevier Science B. The catalytic properties of the metal-org.
The microporous material has a high specific pore vol. Removal of the three copper-bound water mols. The exchange of coordinated water by substrates or solvent mols. The chemisorption results in an activation of benzaldehyde for the liq. Filtration expts. Coordinating solvents such as THF completely block the Lewis acid sites of the catalyst.
Solvents such as CH2Cl2 or higher reaction temps. Fossil fuel particularly coal post-combustion CO2 sequestration is an essential component of any serious plan to avoid catastrophic impacts of human-induced climate change. This work describes a comparative study of post-combustion CO2 capture using 2 representative metal-org. Dynamic column break-through expts.
This study focuses on the development of a hydrothermal method for the rapid synthesis of good quality copper benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate referred to as HKUST-1 with high yield under mild prepn. Different synthesis conditions and activation methods were studied to understand their influence on the properties of HKUST The sample was also tested on its capacity in CO2 adsorption. It is therefore concluded that this novel and efficient method can be used in the rapid prepn.
Cited By. This article is cited by 14 publications. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C , 31 , Shet , S. Shanmuga Priya , K. Sudhakar , Muhammad Tahir. Molecular simulation of copper based metal-organic framework Cu-MOF for hydrogen adsorption.
Materials , 15 8 , Microporous and Mesoporous Materials , 31 , Construction of ultra-stable polypropylene membrane by in-situ growth of nano-metal—organic frameworks for air filtration. Separation and Purification Technology , , Materials Chemistry and Physics , , Peedikakkal , Isam H. Applied Sciences , 11 24 , Applied Sciences , 11 21 , MWCNT-mesoporous silica nanocomposites inserted in a polyhedral metal—organic framework as an advanced hybrid material for energy storage device.
New Journal of Chemistry , 45 38 , Nguyen , Giang H. Nguyen , Trang T. Pham , Taeyoon Lee , Tuan A. Journal of Hazardous Materials , , ChemCatChem , 13 18 , Materials Today Energy , 21 , Isomerization of glucose to fructose catalyzed by metal—organic frameworks. Priyanga , Fong-Lee Ng , M.
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The neutral network contains 12 carboxylic oxygen atoms from the two BTC ligands that are coordinated to four sites of each of the three Cu2+. The ligand functionalization with electron acceptor (cyano-) and electron donor (amino-) groups appears to tailor the electronic properties of Zn-BTC MOFs;. It was found that the adjustment of the Cu–BTC ratio to , which differs from that reported in the literature, resulted in a Cu–BTC MOF with higher.